Sunday, July 29, 2018

Tree Roots Branch in Fabric Containers But Circle and Girdle Plastic


Summary: Landscape transplants get stem-girdling tree roots from plastic nursery containers circling, not from fabric containers branching, Callery pear tree roots.


Barcham Trees, Europe's largest container tree nursery, uses white fabric containers that ease root development and transmit diffuse light: Caroline Vickers ‏@CaroVickers7 via Twitter March 8, 2017

Circling, girdling, malformed roots are associated more with black plastic than with fabric containers and augur shorter-lived transplants in urban landscapes, according to an article in Arboriculture & Urban Forestry July 2018.
Container production bolsters consumer appeal, easy handling and shipping, greater production on less land, intact root balls, longer seasonal markets, shorter production cycles and uniform growth. James E. Kleet, Anthony J. Koski and Alison Stoven O'Connor of Colorado State University in Fort Collins consider number 15 industry-standard black plastic and fabric containers. Their article Container Type Affects Root Development of Chanticleer® Pear (Pyrus calleryana 'Glen's Form') During Landscape Establishment describes fabric containers as delivering air-pruned, branching secondary roots.
The three co-authors examined lightly branched, two-year-old bareroot whips of Callery pear in black plastic, a root pouch and a smart pot May 7, 2010-October 2010.

Nursery-mixed bark fines, composted woods, dehydrated poultry waste, sphagnum peat moss and volcanic pumice furnished electrical conductivity of 3.7 millimhos per centimeter and pH at 6.8.
Averna Root Pouch, High Caliper Growing Smart Pot and Lerio plastic got trees averaging 0.69-inch (17.7-millimeter) trunk calipers (diameters) 5.91 inches (15 centimeters) above soil-tree junctures. The three-year study's six-month nursery establishment personnel had caliper and height measured monthly and 1.51 gallons (5.7 liters) supplied from drip irrigation systems every other day. They installed 27 trees in a Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) lawn on sandy clay loam with conductivity at 0.4 millimhos per centimeter and pH at 7.7.
The three researchers judged 8.82 ounces (250 grams) of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium topdressing necessary for container-planting but not for landscape-planting of circling root-, matting-, root ball integrity-scored transplants.

Plastic-, pot- and pouch-grown tree roots respectively knew 2.2, 4.4, 3.7 circling; 4.9, 4.3, 4.9 integrity; and 1.5, 4.0, 3.0 matting measurements on most-least 1-5 scales.
Three container types left no effects on branch growth; caliper; canopy width; leader growth; root:shoot ratio; shoot, leaf and total plant dry weight; or tree height. Second-year-harvested fabric pot- and pouch-grown trees manifested higher total root dry weights beyond original root balls than plastic-grown trees, at 27.3, 33 and 21.4 percent respectively. Second-year-harvested trees netted greater percentages of total coarse root dry weights within plastic-grown than within pot- and pouch-grown roots, at 77.0, 71.5 and 68.7 percent respectively.
Lower percentages of total coarse roots occurred outside plastic-grown root balls than outside fabric pot- and pouch-grown root balls, at 19.8, 25.4 and 27.9 percent respectively.

That same season, in 2012, plastic-grown tree roots presented total root ball dry weights 24 to 34 percent greater than Root Pouch- and Smart Pot-grown weights.
Pouch- and pot-grown trees queue up greater percentages of coarse roots outside original root balls than plastic-grown trees, at 32.9, 33, 32.9 and 26.4 percents respectively. Nothing retarded above-ground growth even though complete, intact systems regenerated 0.083-inch- (2.1-millimeter-) diameter coarse roots and restricted 0.07-inch- (1.9-millimeter-) diameter fine roots during three post-transplant years. The study shows that plastic nursery container-grown specimens sustain circling, matting tree roots that survive on landscape transplants and slow side growth beyond original root balls.
Stem-girdling tree roots in mature landscapes trace to tending circling, matting tree roots improperly in plastic nursery containers and to trauma after transplanting from non-fabric containers.

A 2010 study of Chanticleer® Pear (Pyrus calleryana 'Glen's Form') trees at Colorado State University in Fort Collins finds that fabric containers promote root development at the nursery and encourage healthy transplanting: The Purdue Arboretum @ThePurdueArboretum via Facebook Dec. 17, 2016

Acknowledgment
My special thanks to:
talented artists and photographers/concerned organizations who make their fine images available on the internet;
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign for superior on-campus and on-line resources.

Image credits:
Barcham Trees, Europe's largest container tree nursery, uses white fabric containers that ease root development and transmit diffuse light: Caroline Vickers ‏@CaroVickers7 via Twitter March 8, 2017, @ https://twitter.com/CaroVickers7/status/839411747861770241
A 2010 study of Chanticleer® Pear (Pyrus calleryana 'Glen's Form') trees at Colorado State University in Fort Collins finds that fabric containers promote root development at the nursery and encourage healthy transplanting: The Purdue Arboretum @ThePurdueArboretum via Facebook Dec. 17, 2016, @ https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=585837724958022

For further information:
Caroline Vickers ‏@CaroVickers7. "8 March 2017. "Pyrus calleryana Chanticleer - ornamental pear field grown at @Barchamtrees in the UK -- coming into bud now. Mature height: 4-7m." Twitter.
Available @ https://twitter.com/CaroVickers7/status/839411747861770241
Gilman, Ed. 2011. An Illustrated Guide to Pruning. Third Edition. Boston MA: Cengage.
Hayes, Ed. 2001. Evaluating Tree Defects. Revised, Special Edition. Rochester MN: Safe Trees.
Marriner, Derdriu. 10 December 2011. "Tree Risk Assessment: Tree Failures From Defects and From Wind Loads." Earth and Space News. Saturday.
Available @ https://earth-and-space-news.blogspot.com/2011/12/tree-risk-assessment-tree-failures-from.html
Marriner, Derdriu. 15 December 2012. "Healthy Urban Tree Root Crown Balances: Soil Properties, Soil Volumes." Earth and Space News. Saturday.
Available @ https://earth-and-space-news.blogspot.com/2012/12/healthy-urban-tree-root-crown-balances.html
Marriner, Derdriu. 23 April 2013. "Urban Tree Root Management Concerns: Defects, Digs, Dirt, Disturbance." Earth and Space News. Saturday.
Available @ https://earth-and-space-news.blogspot.com/2013/04/urban-tree-root-management-concerns.html
Marriner, Derdriu. 15 February 2015. "Urban Forest Maintenance and Non-Maintenance Costs and Benefits." Earth and Space News. Sunday.
Available @ https://earth-and-space-news.blogspot.com/2015/02/urban-forest-maintenance-and-non.html
Marriner, Derdriu. 6 March 2016. "Bare-Rooted Ornamental Urban Transplants: Amendments Against Mortality." Earth and Space News. Sunday.
Available @ https://earth-and-space-news.blogspot.com/2016/03/bare-rooted-ornamental-urban.html
Marriner, Derdriu. 14 January 2017. "Tree Fertilization for Fine Root Growth and Whole Root System Effects." Earth and Space News. Saturday.
Available @ https://earth-and-space-news.blogspot.com/2017/01/tree-fertilization-for-fine-root-growth.html
Marriner, Derdriu. 22 April 2017. "Urban Root Management: Big Infrastructure, Small Space, Stressed Roots." Earth and Space News. Saturday.
Available @ https://earth-and-space-news.blogspot.com/2017/04/urban-root-management-big.html
Marriner, Derdriu. 17 June 2017. "Root Loss From Root Pruning and Root Shaving of Stem-Girdling Roots." Earth and Space News. Saturday.
Available @ https://earth-and-space-news.blogspot.com/2017/06/root-loss-from-root-pruning-and-root.html
O'Connor, Alison Stoven; James E. Klett; and Anthony J. Koski. July 2018. "Container Type Affects Root Development of Chanticleer® Pear (Pyrus calleryana 'Glen's Form') During Landscape Establishment." Arboriculture & Urban Forestry, vol. 44, no. 4: 165-173.
The Purdue Arboretum @ThePurdueArboretum. 17 December 2016. "The multi-colored fall foliage of this Chanticleer Callery Pear (Pyrus calleryana 'Glen's Form' [sold as Chanticleer (R)]) is striking even during a snow storm!" Facebook.
Available @ https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=585837724958022


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